The Food Explorer: The True Adventures of the Globe-Trotting Botanist Who Transformed the American Dinner Table

The Food Explorer: The True Adventures of the Globe-Trotting Botanist Who Transformed the American Dinner Table[Download] ➸ The Food Explorer: The True Adventures of the Globe-Trotting Botanist Who Transformed the American Dinner Table ➿ Daniel Stone – The true adventures of David Fairchild a late nineteenth century food explorer who traveled the globe and introduced diverse crops like avocados mangoes seedless grapes and thousands to the American p The Explorer: The True Adventures ePUB ô true adventures of Explorer: The Epub Ý David Fairchild a late nineteenth century food explorer who traveled the globe and introduced diverse crops like avocados mangoes seedless grapes and thousands to the American plateIn the nineteenth century American meals were about subsistence not enjoyment But as a new century approached appetites broadened and David Fairchild a young botanist with an insatiable lust to explore and experience the world set out in search of The Food PDF/EPUB ² foods that would enrich Food Explorer: The True Adventures PDF/EPUB ² the American farmer and enchant the American eaterKale from Croatia mangoes from India and hops from Bavaria Peaches from China avocados from Chile and pomegranates from Malta Fairchild's finds weren't just limited to food From Egypt he sent back a variety of cotton that revolutionized an industry and via Japan he introduced the cherry blossom tree forever brightening America's capital Along the way he was arrested caught Food Explorer: The PDF/EPUB ã diseases and bargained with island tribes But his culinary ambition came during a formative era and through him America transformed into the most diverse food system ever created. The true story of David Fairchild 1869 1954 a botanist who traveled the world looking for new and better food crops for American farmers It’s not a full biography because it focuses mainly on the 20 years or so that he was actively overseas collecting new seeds cuttings and sproutsFairchild collected specimens until his late 30’s This was the 1880’s – 1890’s and much of South America Africa India and China were wild primitive dangerous places He had great adventures being arrested and almost dying at various times from typhoid fever and mules losing their footing on a precipice while crossing the Andes Although most of the time he worked for the US Department of Agriculture a lot of the expense was financed by his millionaire companion Barbour Lathrop who accompanied him on many trips In his youth Fairchild lived the life of a gay man closeted in those days He and Barbour were members of a “Bohemian Club” In his late 30’s Fairchild switched his lifestyle and married Alexander Graham Bell’s daughter Marian The fruits and plants Fairfield was always looking for new and better fruits Often poor specimens were already grown somewhere in the country but they lacked appeal or had one or of a myriad of marketing or growing problems too thin skinned to ship; don’t ripen all at once; not tasty; pest and disease problems; can’t be irrigated; etc So Fairchild brought us the ancestors of seedless grapes and seedless raisins; mangoes avocados papayas nectarines cashews dates lemons nectarines and many others I say ancestors because all crops have changed dramatically by cross breeding and hybridization since those early days Not all were fruits He brought us hops that finally let the US produce European uality beer; Egyptian cotton and Japanese cherry trees Each plant has its own interesting story whether Fairchild was the collector or not We learn that the great expositions of the time especially the World’s Fairs in the days before TV and the web were how people learned about new foods So the first bananas in the US were popularized at the 1876 Philadelphia World’s Fair They were served peeled and wrapped in foil so their shape wouldn’t offend anyone and eaten with a knife and fork The 1893 Chicago Fair and the 1901 Pan Am Expo in Buffalo at which McKinley was assassinated were all big food emporiums Another interesting story is the zucchini from Italy They were tastiest when tiny as the “ini” implies The Italians picked them before they flowered Now of course we buy gigantic tasteless ones and make cookies from them My wife says “Why don’t they give that vegetable a rest?”In his later career when he became a stay at home bureaucrat he sent younger men out to collect But the fun was over His legacy was under attack for having incidentally introduced various pests and plant diseases A uarantine Act was passed that made the introduction of new plant a process that took years He and his wife had children and in retirement they summered in Nova Scotia and wintered in Coconut Grove Florida His estate in Florida named Kampong after a site in Java where he collected specimens became one of the National Tropical Botanical Gardens A wealthy Floridian created an 80 acre botanical garden in Coral Gables named in Fairchild's honor A good read that kept my interest Fairchild's photo from Wikipedia Cue up the marching band majorettes flag waving veterans and cheering crowds The Food Explorer by Daniel Stone is a proud celebration of American greatness The hero of the story is David Fairchild 1869–1954 a botanist and agricultural explorer Working for the US Department of Agriculture his group was responsible for sending home seeds and cuttings of thousands of plants from nations around the world The goal was to expand the variety of crops grown in America and build the biggest most profitable industrial agriculture system in human historyThe devious villain in the story is Charles Marlatt a childhood acuaintance of Fairchild who had grown up to be an entomologist He detested what Fairchild was doing because the tons of samples sent home to Washington were not uarantined and thoroughly inspected So plant diseases and pests were free to flee and discover America Imported insects included the codling moth Hessian fly asparagus beetle hop plant louse cabbage worm wheat plant louse pea weevil Croton bug boll weevil San Jose scale gypsy moth brown tail moth Argentinian ant alfalfa leaf weevil and so on Marlatt understood that plant pests and pathogens were potentially as dangerous to society as a cholera epidemic They could spread rapidly and cause enormous damage Farms were getting thrashed and Marlatt had stunning photos It was nearly impossible to control problems once they were released into the ecosystem It would have been far intelligent to zap them before they left the starting gate Fairchild scoffed at Marlatt’s hysterical paranoia Economic benefits exceeded economic costs he believed America could solve any problem Full speed aheadThe spooky fanatical weirdo in this story is Fairchild’s all star food explorer Frank Meyer In deepest darkest Asia he often walked 20 miles 32 km per day through regions where locals intensely hated white folks He had freuent confrontations beatings and near death experiences He obsessively gathered and shipped thousands of plant seeds and cuttings Folks who comprehended the botanical risks of importing exotics gave him a nickname Typhoid Mary Google her In his book Grassland Richard Manning talked about the unintended conseuences of introducing European cattle to the western plains where the climate and natural forage were not ideal for them Efforts to introduce traditional European plants failed so Meyer was assigned to send back plants from arid regions of Asia Crested wheatgrass was one of his discoveries Following the Dust Bowl and other agricultural wipeouts the government aggressively planted crested wheatgrass for erosion control It thrived on the plains aggressively replacing native vegetation with colonies that were nearly monocultures Unfortunately in the winter months this wonder grass retained little nutritional value and the mule deer elk and antelope starved in endless fields of grass Manning lamented that “Meyer brought with him botanical bombs that explode even today”The plant importation fad introduced a number of bummers Spotted knapweed suppresses native grasses and has now spread to 7 million acres 28 million ha Grazing animals avoid it Leafy spurge now inhabits 25 million acres only some types of goats can eat it The result is biological deserts that are expanding and extremely expensive to eliminate — essentially impossible according to ManningAnyway my curiosity about Meyer led me to discover Stone’s book It’s easy to read and portrays the food explorers as heroes who devoted their lives to making America great If like most Americans school taught you little about environmental history Stone’s story is warm and fuzzy a pleasant tale of courage progress and wealth creation Fairchild became a celebrity and hung out with the rich and famousOne of the biggest eco catastrophes caused by imported plants was the chestnut blight Fairchild Marlatt and Meyer were fully aware of it It was first noticed on American chestnut trees at the Bronx Zoo in 1904 At that time chestnuts were a canopy species in 88 million acres 35 million ha of eastern forest The trees were called “the redwoods of the east” Some grew to 150 feet 46 m high having trunks up to 17 feet 5 m in diameter and a canopy 100 feet wideEvery year mature trees dropped an abundance of nuts food for suirrels wild turkeys deer bears raccoons and grouse The wood was rot resistant easily split did not warp or shrink and was useful in many ways Both the Indians and the hill people who followed them depended on these trees Hillbillies could raise free range hogs in the forest commons at no cost and fill their smokehouses with chestnut flavored pork Cartloads of nuts were hauled to town and sold for cash “shoe moneySpores of the blight fungus were transported by birds mammals insects and breezes As the contagion got rolling it could spread as far as 50 miles 80 km per year The blight damaged the inner bark blocking the flow of water and nutrients to the tree above ground Within 40 years the American chestnut was a threatened species Four billion trees died The wildlife disappeared and many hill people had to abandon their subsistence way of life One reported “Man I had the awfulest feeling about that as a child to look back yonder and see those trees dying; I thought the whole world was going to die”In 1904 nobody knew if the fungus was native or imported Meyer identified the source of the fungus when he found infected chestnut trees in China in 1913 and Japan in 1915 He noted that these trees rarely died from the blight and some were very resistant The food explorer lads did send back some chestnut seeds and cuttings over the years but they weren’t the first In her essay on the introduction of the blight Sandra L Anagnostakis noted that nurseries were importing Japanese chestnuts as early as 1876 Many seedlings were sold by mail order long before 1904Marlatt argued that the blight could have been prevented if the federal government had wisely uarantined and inspected all imported plants Fairchild though this was a ridiculous idea impeding the speed of progress for no good reason Marlatt eventually won Congress passed the Plant uarantine Act in 1912 and inspections were the domain of the Federal Agricultural Board which Marlatt controlledStone devoted about four sentences to the chestnut blight catastrophe In Stone’s account Fairchild dismissed the blight as a triumph of progress — an existing vulnerability had been eliminated by importing the superior blight resistant chestnuts from Asia Hooray Fairchild wrote a different version of this story in his 1938 book The World Was My Garden When he eventually comprehended the incredible devastation he was stunned He wrote “I regretted any feelings of impatience I may have had towards their uarantines and inspections”As we chaotically plunge into the twenty first century with seven point something billion humans furiously beating the stuffing out of the planet’s ecosystems all the red idiot lights on the dashboard are flashing At the same time the vast majority of consumers seem to believe that perpetual growth is both possible and desirable life as we know it won’t get blindsided by the end of the fossil fuel era and wizards will find a way to feed eleven billion I’m beginning to wonder if it might be wise to devote a little time to sniffing reality’s buttIt took thousands of years for Old World cultures to develop the skills and technology needed to obliterate their wild ecosystems By the time these folks washed up on the shores of America they were fire breathing masters of the art of destruction Uninvited immigrants colonized a vast continent and threw open the floodgates to legions of biological nightmares Environmental history is loaded with horror stories caused by primate travelers — potato blight anthrax Dutch elm disease white nose fungus bubonic plague smallpox cholera typhoid yellow fever influenza HIV and countless othersThe tallgrass prairie and much forest land has now been stripped of indigenous life plowed and planted with sprawling monocultures of genetic clones — absolutely perfect paradises for pests and pathogens Here comes the sprayers Here comes the tumors There goes the topsoil The parade marches on Hooray Historical Significance of American Chestnut by Donald E Davis Chestnuts and the Introduction of Chestnut Blight by Sandra L Anagnostakis In the late 19th century eating in America was pretty basic without a lot of variety and probably not a lot of flavor It was definitely not the culture of being a foodie that we have today Despite the diverse land and climate especially as the country grew westward the food that was grown and cultivated remained relatively the same David Fairchild a botanist with an insatiable desire to travel sought and brought back some of our favorite foods that we take for granted as always having been here It is amazing to think that foods like avocado cashews mangoes papaya grapes were not native to America but brought here in the form of seeds or cuttings that sometimes were acuired dubiously and not without danger in some cases Sometimes with a benefactormentor he traveled around the globe several times by ship in order to send back to the Department of Agriculture seeds or cuttings to be cultivated here in similar climates to their origin I was fascinated by this particular topic as we take for granted the abundance of different fruits and vegetables that we have access to There was a lot of interesting historical facts in addition to the adventures of David Fairchild It is well worth the read if you enjoy reading about the gilded age of American history and something as vital and necessary as the cultivation and propagation of diverse foods This was an unexpected gem of a book It's the story of David Fairchild an American botanist who traveled the world in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to find plants and fruits that were unknown in America He sent cuttings and seeds back home to the US Department of Agriculture so that the specimens could be studied and possibly transplanted and who knows maybe become popular And in fact that happened many times and explains how we happen to enjoy avocados and kale and uinces and mangoes and different varieties of lemons and grains and much The story of a botanist does not sound intrinsically fascinating to me but Fairchild's enthusiasm for plants and for world travel and adventure helped carbonate the story And his friendship with Barbour Lathrop was the other ingredient that turned The Food Explorer into a story for audiences than the botanically minded He was a wealthy world traveler who befriended Fairchild when Fairchild was on one of his first trips About twenty years older than Fairchild Lathrop became a kind of mentor to Fairchild and introduced him to adventure travel He also funded many of Fairchild's trips before the Department of Agriculture discovered the potential value of Fairchild's contributions He was also a rather eccentric character who offsets Fairchild's straight arrow nature to good effect in the bookThanks to PenguinDutton and NetGalley for a digital review copy Book DescriptionThe true adventures of David Fairchild a late nineteenth century food explorer who traveled the globe and introduced diverse crops like avocados mangoes seedless grapes and thousands to the American plateMy ThoughtsIn the 19th century preparing meals and eating was solely viewed as necessary for survival People didn't go on culinary adventures or look for exotic ingredients to create flavor combinations to delight the palate Enter David Fairchild a botanist who traveled the globe in search of food items that American farmers could grow that would then provide choices to the American eaterDaniel Stone has written an incredibly detailed and insightful book based on David Fairchild's journeys Love kale mangos avocados pomegranates and hundreds of other crops? You can thank Mr Fairchild Mr Stone used MrFairchild's extensive notes to bring his journeys in the 19th and 20th centuries to life World travel was much complex than what we are used to today and David had many epic adventures In addition he had to fight our government's reluctance to bring non native plants to America There are so many interesting stories about the foods we as a country were eating and how Fairchild was so instrumental in shaping our culinary canvasI read this from beginning to end in one book binge As someone who considers herself a foodie I am amazed that I wasn't familiar with all that David Fairchild accomplished I highly recommend this book to anyone interested in food It was enlightening and enjoyableThank you Daniel Stone Penguin Group Dutton and NetGalley for the digital ARC Winning a contest is always good but winning an outstanding book is even better “We have only one life to live and we want to spend it enriching our own country with the plants of the world which produce good things to eat and to look atThis is the next pick for my local bookclub and even though I had to fight the eBook hold lists at the library I was able to get to it before we meet It is a fascinating tale of many of the foods grown and consumed in America today all because of this one man who ventured out and collected seeds and cuttings from around the world My unfortunate husband got to hear a lot of tiny bits that I found fascinating I'm looking forward to our discussion especially since many of the people in the book club went to a talk with the authorWhat about how he tried breaking uinoa to the states but people didn't get it and it took ten decades for it to get popular? My favorite place is probably where Fairchild talks about kale as the food of the common people and the author puts his own digs I love kale Just about every time you eat a fruit vegetable or just something exciting that came from the earth not was killed for you or by you you have David Fairchild to thank And no one even knows about him or at least not enough and I’m so glad there’s now this book to educate and finally give credit where credit’s due For any discriminate palate every vegetarian anyone who likes or loves food David Fairchild is The Man Tirelessly traveling the globe and collecting fruits and vegetables and these will actually be redefined for you by this book too and plants to liven broaden and expand America’s palate He wasn’t the only one but he was the initiator the man with the idea and later a plan who set it all in motion Nowadays it wouldn’t work of course we’ve discovered much of what is out there to eat did some food based mathhow difficult is it to cultivatehow well will it be likedand got a variety But back in the day late 19thearly 20th century the market was begging for some diversity Just like America was built on immigrants the fact so often conveniently forgotten American diets were built on and dramatically improved by delicious exports from all over the world Otherwise it would just be meat and some local crops how’s that for a fad diet? Nutrition and vitamin depleted blandness permeated kitchens and dining tables across the US and David Fairchild changed it It’s pretty awesome to think about Avocados kale citrusesso many tasty lovely things most in fact except for his beloved mangosteen have become such supermarket essentials it’s difficult to imagine life without them But there are only here become at one point Fairchild has traveled to the land of their origin tasted them and brought or shipped them back to the US to be cultivated Again awesome Sure he’s had some fortunate turns wealthy improbably named benefactors propitious marriage to a daughter of Alexander Graham Bell no less yes that phone guy a dedicated protégé Frank Meyer on him later but what Fairchild was able to accomplish through sheer drive and willpower the scale of his vision and the work he put into realizing it and his unwavering commitment are simply astounding USA went through expansion imperialism international outreach and then of course snapped back into nationalism and xenophobia like it does but Fairchild always persevered in his belief that new and exciting things from other countries can only be good for the society Sure it’s just food but it’s a pretty poignant worldview for this day and age What he’s done was uite heroic and I’m glad to have learned his story Now Frank Meyer was a Dutchman who came to the US and picked up Fairchild’s outbound missions as the back stayed back in Washington to manage the operations Oh and you know all those lovely cherry blossoms Washington DC is known forFairchild to thank and a great story There was uite a serious battle of wills between Fairchild and a former childhood friend now formidable foe who protested further imports citing the dangers to existing crops Food export and cultivation was a complicated process back in the day but also a huge industry consider the fact that almost 50% of the population were farmers comparing to only a few % today Where Fairchild was devoted Meyer was a fanatic he traveled China extensively and stunningly a lot of it on foot and eventually the dangers local war and crime the privation the disappointment in the world this s around WWI and probably most crucially the loneliness and isolation proved too much for him That was probably the most emotionally devastating part of the book reading about Meyer’s descent into depression and Fairchild unable to help not unwilling but through a difference of mentalities and restricted by the prevalent spirit of get up get going unable to write the right things in his letters Meyer is the man behind Meyer’s lemons There is a joke here somewhere about lemons and lemonade but none that would be in good taste The man’s trajectory was a tragic one Fairchild had food collectors but none like that And eventually the need for it died out the devastation of The Great War reduced the demand for exotic foods It boggles the mind to consider the variety thoughonce there were something like 409 varieties of tomato being cultivated in the US now it’s about 79 Boggles the mind to consider that once there was a man who traveled the world trying new foods just to expand the range of what was known A real explorer So that’s the book terrific absorbing meticulously researched seriously about a uarter of it is just dedicated to bibliography and notes incredibly informative and just very necessary The version I read was a digital ARC from Dutton which was challengingfor some reason copyright paranoia? all the fffi and fl are taken out of the text imagine the fun so ist oor is first floor and so on Different publishers handle ARCs differently most are perfectly readable not sure why Dutton chooses to do this to their readers Also not sure if it’s because it’s an arc of what no photos nothing just two paltry visual aids That’s just sad especially for a book so inclusive But all that aside I’m glad to have read it And you should read it too it’s only slightly longer than this review If you did read this entire behemoth of a review though here are some bon mots from the book to make it worth your while delight and amuseTo botanist vegetable is any other edible part of the plant that doesn’t contain seedsIn 1893 US Supreme Court ruled tomatoes to be vegetables so they can collect the higher tariffs4 major original citrus fruits are citrons pomelos mandarins and papedas1893 World’s fair had 2 replicas of Liberty Bell one made from rolled oats one from orangesThe word avocado is a derivative of an Aztec word for testicleFun right? The book has tons of these Thanks Netgalley Wow I am not normally a voracious page turner of non fiction but this one did it for meThis is the true story of David Fairchild a man who was responsible for immeasurably enriching America's agriculture Does that sound dull? It's not If you're like me you love food If you're like me you maybe also consider yourself fairly willing to try new things and food of different ethnicities BUT none of us can escape that we are probably pretty complacent about the foods we have grown up with the foods we assume belong to our people and our lifestyle These foods somehow seem to just naturally have pride of place on our menu and that's just the way it is and they're normal and everything else while interesting and maybe delicious is slightly exotic and outsideWrongWhen I learned from this book how much painstaking work and passion went into importing new plants into America plants that produce food we now take for granted I was in awe When I realized what an absolute lottery of chance it was that certain plants found success in the United States and other plants never uite got a proper opportunity due to accident or poor timing I was confounded My exciting profound takeaway from this book is that there is SO MUCH food out there and given a slight alteration in history or policy ALL of it could have been MY normal If this doesn't change the way you look at food and enhance your willingness to try all types then nothing willThis book was extremely well written Usually when I read non fiction I set myself goals of a certain number of pages per time When I was at about 70% towards the end I intended to stop for a bit but I just kept on going I wanted to know what happened to David Fairchild to his star explorer Frank Meyer SO tragic and when I use Meyer lemons from now on I will contemplate his life with the proper gravitas and to the edge of your seat battle between the plant importers and the pest preventersThis is a tale of a little espionage a little diplomacy a little bureaucracy a little romance a lot of friendship and a driving curiosity about the good stuff on the planet Here are a few choice uotesFairchild used to say 'Never be satisfied with what you know only with what you can find outFairchild liked the idea of espionage but he was as skilled at covert action as he was at ballroom dancing having done neitherFor a botanist the first taste of a new plant was like meeting a new person and recalling it flooded the mind with memories of where it had happened what the tongue expected and what it found instead Wasn't it strange Fairchild observed man's propensity to be satisfied with so little when so much was available? YES I think so tooA glass ceiling could be shattered once; after that latecomers could only break the pieces into smaller and smaller shardsHis cynicism about people's stubborn tastes had grown strong I know there are many people who will shy at the idea of even tasting the leaves of the papaya Fairchild wroteBut as they shake their heads they will reach for a cigaretteI first learned about this book from a Smithsonian podcast called Side Door and NetGalley kindly gave me access to a digital review copy Absolutely fascinatingI came to this book absolutely clueless about its contents beyond what's on the cover A GR friend had added it to her 'want to read' shelf the cover looked interesting and my library had itOnce in my hands I dove right in and barely came up for air until I had finishedThere is so much to enjoy here the author has a deft story telling style and the story itself is full of action intrigue politics and history David Fairchild our hero left behind a copious archive of written materialfield notes letters articles and photographs so our author had no shortage of source materials The photographs are especially fascinatingI really don't want to say too much as I would like readers to have that chance of coming upon something unexpected However I will say that Fairchild did his plant exploring in the 1890s and the early 1900s a time when the US Department of Agriculture was actively looking for new commercially viable crops for US farmersI shall now head off to the kitchen to get some red seedless grapes to nibble on yet one reason to say 'thank you' to David Fairchild Voices as pointed as their hats??? What does that even mean?Who founded the Red Cross? it wasn't Clara BartonPeople in Australia celebrate with pies curry and lamb chops??In 1897 Australia wasn't federated so there was no Australian Department of Agriculture I assume he meant New South WalesDeveloping governments especially those like Australia endowed with money from a foreign crown What? What money from a foreign crown? In 1897 NSW and the other colonies were self governing and raised their own revenueMore attention to detail or a good editor would have improved this book

The Food Explorer: The True Adventures of the Ebook
  • ebook
  • 397 pages
  • The Food Explorer: The True Adventures of the Globe-Trotting Botanist Who Transformed the American Dinner Table
  • Daniel Stone
  • English
  • 10 July 2016
  • 9781101990605