Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War

Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War➾ [Download] ➾ Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War By Paul Scharre ➳ – Jobs-in-kingston.co.uk The era of autonomous weapons has arrived Today around the globe, at least thirty nations have weapons that can search for and destroy enemy targets all on their own Paul Scharre, a leading expert in The era of autonomous weapons None: Autonomous PDF/EPUB ç has arrived Today around the globe, at least thirty nations have weapons that can search for and destroy enemy targets all on their own Paul Scharre, a leading expert in next generation warfare, describes these and other high tech Army of PDF/EPUB ² weapons systems from Israel s Harpy drone to the American submarine hunting robot ship Sea Hunter and examines the legal and ethical issues surrounding their use A smart primer to what s to come in warfare Bruce Schneier , Army of None engages military history, of None: Autonomous ePUB ✓ global policy, and cutting edge science to explore the implications of giving weapons the freedom to make life and death decisions A former soldier himself, Scharre argues that we must embrace technology where it can make war precise and humane, but when the choice is life or death, there is no replacement for the human heart. When I was a kid, I read a lot of sci fi books One of the most common themes was man vs machine, which often took the form of robots becoming self aware and threatening humanity This theme has also become a staple of Hollywood movies like The Terminator and The Matrix.Despite the prevalence of this theme, I don t lose any sleep worrying about this scenario But I do think we should spendtime thinking about the implications positive and negative of recent progress in artificial intelli When I was a kid, I read a lot of sci fi books One of the most common themes was man vs machine, which often took the form of robots becoming self aware and threatening humanity This theme has also become a staple of Hollywood movies like The Terminator and The Matrix.Despite the prevalence of this theme, I don t lose any sleep worrying about this scenario But I do think we should spendtime thinking about the implications positive and negative of recent progress in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and machine vision For example, militaries have begun to develop drones, ships, subs, tanks, munitions, and robotic troops with increasing levels of intelligence and autonomy.While this use of A.I holds great promise for reducing civilian casualties and keepingtroops out of harm s way, it also presents the possibility of unintended consequences if we re not careful Earlier this year, U.N Secretary General Ant nio Guterres called global attention to these threats The weaponization of artificial intelligence is a growing concern The prospect of weapons that can select and attack a target on their own raises multiple alarms The prospect of machines with the discretion and power to take human life is morally repugnant Unfortunately, my first attempt to educate myself on autonomous weapons was a bust I read a book that was dry and felt really outdated Then a few months ago I picked up Army of None Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War, by Paul Scharre It s the book I had been waiting for I can t recommend it highly enough.Scharre is a great thinker who has both on the ground experience and a high level view He s a former Army Ranger who served four tours of combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan He then went onto a policy role at the U.S Department of Defense and led the working group that drafted the government s policy on autonomous weapons He s currently a policy expert at the Center for a New American Security, a center left think tank in DC.He is also a good writer Scharre writes clearly about a huge range of topics computer science, military strategy, history, philosophy, psychology, and ethics He gives you the right grounding to start participating in the debate over where our country should draw the line on these powerful technologies.Scharre makes clear from the beginning that he has no problem with some well bounded military uses of autonomy For example, he brings you along for a tour of the U.S Navy s Aegis Combat System, an advanced system for tracking and guiding missiles at sea Aegis has a mode of operation in which human operators delegate all firing decisions to an advanced computer but can override them if necessary Why would you want to put a computer in charge If you re out at sea and an enemy fires 50 missiles at you all at once, you d be very happy to have a system that can react much faster than a human could Army of None also shows that autonomy has great benefits in environments where humans can t survive such as flight situations with high G forces or in which communications have broken down It can be enormously helpful to have an unmanned drone, tank, or sub that carries out a clear, limited mission with little communication back and forth with human controllers.In addition, autonomous weapons could potentially help save civilian lives Scharre cites robotics experts who argue that autonomous weapons could be programmed to never break the laws of war They wouldn t seek revenge They wouldn t get angry or scared They would take emotion out of the equation They could kill when necessary and then turn killing off in an instant Despite these and other advantages, Scharre does not want the military ever to turn over judgment to computers To make his case, he offers compelling real life cases in which human judgment was essential for preventing needless killing, such as his own experiences in Afghanistan A young girl of maybe five or six headed out of the village and up our way, two goats in trail Ostensibly she was just herding goats, but she was actually spotting for Taliban fighters Scharre s unit did not shoot Yes, it would have been legal, but he argues that it would not have been morally right A robotic sniper following strict algorithms might well have opened fire the second it detected a radio in her hand.Scharre ends the book by exploring the possibility of an international ban on fully autonomous weapons He concludes that this kind of absolute ban is not likely to succeed However, he holds out hope that enlightened self interest could bring countries together to ban specific uses of autonomous weapons, such as those that target individual people He also believes it s feasible to establish non binding rules of the road that could reduce the potential for autonomous systems to set each other off accidentally He also believes we could update the international laws of war to embed a common principle for human involvement in lethal force.There are no easy answers here But I agree with Scharre that we have to guard against becoming seduced by the allure of machines their speed, their seeming perfection, their cold precision And we should not leave it up to military planners or the people writing software to determine where to draw the proper lines We need many experts and citizens across the globe to get involved in this important debate I could not finish this book despite my interest in technology As an engineer who is fascinated by artificial intelligence and machine learning, I was very eager to read this book and learnfrom what experts are thinking and doing with AI Though I did learn a few cool things, there was lots of repetition I believe the author meant to write an informative and interesting book but as a reader it was not enough to keep me engaged. It can t be bargained with It can t be reasoned with It doesn t feel pity, or remorse, or fear And it absolutely will not stop, ever, until you are dead TerminatorDoes it concern you that in the near future we ll all be dependent upon driverless cars to get around Trust me, that s nothing This book, Army of None, was a real eye opener for me We re living in a world where warfare will soon be waged at the push of a button Autonomous weapons systems, designed and programmed byIt can t be bargained with It can t be reasoned with It doesn t feel pity, or remorse, or fear And it absolutely will not stop, ever, until you are dead TerminatorDoes it concern you that in the near future we ll all be dependent upon driverless cars to get around Trust me, that s nothing This book, Army of None, was a real eye opener for me We re living in a world where warfare will soon be waged at the push of a button Autonomous weapons systems, designed and programmed by imperfect humans, will be able to independently take military actions i.e., detecting and identifying enemy combatants, developing target solutions, estimating collateral damage, and deciding whether or not to engage their weapons This book introduces us to what is not only the future, but what has already been designed, at least in prototype state.Imagine a swarm of drones, a mechanized hunting wolf pack if you will, powerful and stealthy, making decisions without having to check in with a human boss , able to communicate as a team and make decisions collectively, not dependent on a pack leader which could be taken out by the enemy, sufficiently armed to terminate both military and human targets, to take down airplanes, to swarm battlefields and destroy transportation systems, or to sit dormant for years off the ocean floor and wait for ships and submarines to pass by Worst of all, imagine these AI directed autonomous systems being created with no built in off switch Sound like a science fiction novel Think again 16 nations have already built or acquired mainly from China weaponized drones A dozenare working on it Many of these are definitely not countries you d think of as friendly allies Armed robots are also proliferating South Korea Samsung has deployed a robot sentry along its border with North Korea Israel has sent an armed robotic vehicle on patrol near along the Gaza strip Russia is building a robotic tank Even countries such as Singapore and Ecuador now have armed robotic boats to protect their coastline.DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency , the agency who gave us the internet, GPS technology, stealth capability, and advancements in AI, has delivered to the Navy a prototype Sea Hunter, an unmanned ship which looks like a Klingon Bird of Prey, tasked with hunting enemy subs and ships Also, Northrup Grumman has delivered an experimental, autonomously operated, unmanned Salty Dog fighter aircraft, intended to be launched from aircraft carriers and capable of mid air refueling And the most frightening autonomous weapon system of all may not even be hardware, but rather software Of course, we ve all heard of viruses and worms infiltrating our computers and multiplying like a cancer Autonomous cyberbots take this dark world of destruction one step further They are designed to think and operate independently, searching every computer system personal computers, cellphones, businesses, governments which is connected directly or indirectly to the internet, looking for security vulnerabilities In today s world, that could also be simple household smart products which are designed with little attention to cyber security , such as Nest climate controllers,Echos, cars with GPS systems, house alarms, etc These cyberbots then autonomously determine whether the vulnerable programs are friendly allies or unfriendly foes If friendly, the bots can be designed to repair the vulnerability on the spot defensive and or hide themselves within the enemy program and wait for the most ideal time to wreak havoc offensive And they are designed to cover their tracks so that, while infected, everything continues to appear normal to the program user Even though important computer networks are often designed to be protected with an air gap no direct connection to the internet , cyberbots can find other ways to infiltrate, such as spreading via USB drives and sticks While cyberwarfare is a major concern imagine what would happen if the Air Traffic Controller systems were suddenly corrupted , the nightmare scenario is when cyberbots somehow infiltrate, corrupt and or turn the neural programming of our sophisticated weaponry, changing let s say a friendly fighter robot into an unfriendly one Can you sayTerminatorWhile this book was definitely an education for me, well over half of the book was not about autonomous systems, per se, but about the moral implications of their use This could have been covered in one or two chapters, not twenty Short version a toxic book coming from a fear monger with a governmental expansion agenda.Long version I am very interested in the subject And, as with bioethics, the perspective is very dark Most, if not all, asking for moderation , control or anything in between are simply primitivists scared out of their wits of what technology might bring.In this particular case, Scharre is a Luddite His understanding of the subject is shallow at best, although the surface covered is large indeed Fro Short version a toxic book coming from a fear monger with a governmental expansion agenda.Long version I am very interested in the subject And, as with bioethics, the perspective is very dark Most, if not all, asking for moderation , control or anything in between are simply primitivists scared out of their wits of what technology might bring.In this particular case, Scharre is a Luddite His understanding of the subject is shallow at best, although the surface covered is large indeed From the first pages he starts with an anecdote about the wonderful angel of the Soviet rocket command that saved the World from Nuclear Holocaust He continues with another anecdote in which he puts himself as a participant in such a saving action Well How about Mai Lai Massacre And that is the one that got to the public How about the other massacres that did not have a whistle blower How about the ones in which the whistle blower lost Why would anyone believe the first story coming from a country that specialized in low blows and deception The point is simply humans are way way below the angelic nature Scharre s superstitious mind can grasp.My second point might appear as making instead angels from the machines No The machine, at least for now, will do what the human will ask it to do So NO machine can be ANY better than the human programming it The decisions can be farclear Or the programming can simply be buggy.I got to this book though Bill Gates recommended books And I get it To grossly paraphrase Peter Thiel, betting on Microsoft simply means betting against progress And that seems to be Gates mindset.I have nothing against argument Even an emotional argument like Scharre s, devoid of reason What I point out, is also pointed out by Scharre many groups are pushing for this sort of weapons ANY restriction would push what Jello Biafra wonderfully put If Evolution is outlawed, only outlaws will evolve Paul Scharre is true to his own agenda He is a fear monger, a bureaucrat who wants a total control of the state, damn the rest And that is what makes this book toxic Because his gang might win based on this sort of emotional cries This didn t really get interesting for me until the chapter on Russian bots which started off the section that I d call what s the state of the art In covering several weapon systems from around the world, the salient point for each was whether or not it was automated or truly autonomous and how that status is defined The chapter on general IA concepts was the highlight of the book for me It covered Google s AI program DeepMind as it learned the Chinese Japanese Korean game of GO A task fa This didn t really get interesting for me until the chapter on Russian bots which started off the section that I d call what s the state of the art In covering several weapon systems from around the world, the salient point for each was whether or not it was automated or truly autonomous and how that status is defined The chapter on general IA concepts was the highlight of the book for me It covered Google s AI program DeepMind as it learned the Chinese Japanese Korean game of GO A task farchallenging to an AI than learning chess, by several orders of magnitude The following program AlphaGo was pitted against World Champion Lee Sedol and it came up with a move so unusual and startling that Lee got up and left the room for half an hour He came back and eventually lost As an indicator of how fast this is all moving, DeepMind AlphaGo played ten matches, AlphaGo won all ten The book drives home the point that we have to figure out what we re going to do with this tech right now The general public isn t aware how soon this will show up on the battlefield and in the air It took me a while to start reading the book and I ve struggled through the first 10% Not because it is bad, but because my point of view was that automated warfare is the way things will go.The book showed a much broader perspective and how automation complicates war and politics.But if it was the only thing that cought my attention in this book I wouldn t rate it so high It is also a very realistic view of what questions we will need to ask ourselves before, or during the development of AI s It took me a while to start reading the book and I ve struggled through the first 10% Not because it is bad, but because my point of view was that automated warfare is the way things will go.The book showed a much broader perspective and how automation complicates war and politics.But if it was the only thing that cought my attention in this book I wouldn t rate it so high It is also a very realistic view of what questions we will need to ask ourselves before, or during the development of AI systems Why Because warfare will be the main and most lethal testing ground for human AI interaction In both roles supporting and making decisions.As for AI, this book presents arealistic vision and asks relevant questions than Superintelligence I highly recommend it We ve gotten used to a certain model of popularized knowledge a clear thesis, summarized on the back of the book, and a chapter by chapter marshalling of evidence in support Army of None is from a different school, and frustrating if you ask that of it Rather than a single argument, it is structured as a thematic literature survey, exploring topics as diverse as the targeting systems of Aegis Combat system equipped submarines, cyber warfare, and philosophy of the rules of armed engagement Th We ve gotten used to a certain model of popularized knowledge a clear thesis, summarized on the back of the book, and a chapter by chapter marshalling of evidence in support Army of None is from a different school, and frustrating if you ask that of it Rather than a single argument, it is structured as a thematic literature survey, exploring topics as diverse as the targeting systems of Aegis Combat system equipped submarines, cyber warfare, and philosophy of the rules of armed engagement This isn t a book well suited for the casually curious to the reader s cost, the driest material comes first, reviewing what is known of the US and other countries current semi automated systems in what is probably excessive detail The further one gets into the book, however, theit broadens and starts treating the questions that probably matterto most potential readers What rules should or could be applied to an automated weapon system How can humans be kept in or on the loop of combat decision making What bans on weapons have held historically, and why Sharre s choice to build so much of his book around interviews with experts can come across as a lack of confidence in his own thesis, but may reflect his years of service in both policy and on the front with the US military, crafting cautious and well founded argument When his perspective on the best path forward reveals itself late in the books, it is something of a last concept standing Through process of elimination of possibilities we ve explored in detail with him and found in one way or another wanting, some possibilities stand out as worth exploring, while other common perspectives in the media no longer hold up.Firmly recommended to people looking for an expert guide thinking through the issues around the arrival of automated force but don t make the mistake of picking this up to fill your popularized science reading slot It will askfrom you than that I enjoyed this book considerably I went back and forth on the rating, but since I statistically don t give enough five star ratings, I ll bump it up This book isn t perfect but it has a lot to say about automation in a readable style.Beyond that, I don t have many comments It s an excellent description of issues regarding automation in warfare, a decent exploration of some general AI risks, and a start at considering policy Looking at criticism of the book, I think it s anuanced and ba I enjoyed this book considerably I went back and forth on the rating, but since I statistically don t give enough five star ratings, I ll bump it up This book isn t perfect but it has a lot to say about automation in a readable style.Beyond that, I don t have many comments It s an excellent description of issues regarding automation in warfare, a decent exploration of some general AI risks, and a start at considering policy Looking at criticism of the book, I think it s anuanced and balanced take than many Autonomous weapons i.e killer robots are one of the many incredible and terrifying technologies coming to our world whether we re ready for them or not Army of None is a thorough survey of the development of autonomy in weapons technology, its potential application in the future, and the advantages and disadvantages of autonomous and semi autonomous systems It explains technical details well for one with no particular knowledge of the subject The book focuses particularly on the moral and Autonomous weapons i.e killer robots are one of the many incredible and terrifying technologies coming to our world whether we re ready for them or not Army of None is a thorough survey of the development of autonomy in weapons technology, its potential application in the future, and the advantages and disadvantages of autonomous and semi autonomous systems It explains technical details well for one with no particular knowledge of the subject The book focuses particularly on the moral and ethical issues created by fully autonomous weapons It presents both sides of the argument fairly well, though it is somewhat skewed against autonomy Oddly, it does not spend much time on the simple point that autonomous weapons could keepof one s own human soldiers out of harm s way, which I would have thought to be one of the primary advantages.The book s primary flaw is a redundant style I think a good editor could have reduced the length of the book by at least a third without removing anything substantive I d still recommend the book to those interested in the subject matter Good book that explores the future of autonomous weapons These weapons range from loitering munitions to drones to nuclear command and control systems think war games Further, the book explores not only advancements in technology, but the ethics and morality of developing these types of systems.

Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War PDF
    Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War PDF life or death, there is no replacement for the human heart. When I was a kid, I read a lot of sci fi books One of the most common themes was man vs machine, which often took the form of robots becoming self aware and threatening humanity This theme has also become a staple of Hollywood movies like The Terminator and The Matrix.Despite the prevalence of this theme, I don t lose any sleep worrying about this scenario But I do think we should spendtime thinking about the implications positive and negative of recent progress in artificial intelli When I was a kid, I read a lot of sci fi books One of the most common themes was man vs machine, which often took the form of robots becoming self aware and threatening humanity This theme has also become a staple of Hollywood movies like The Terminator and The Matrix.Despite the prevalence of this theme, I don t lose any sleep worrying about this scenario But I do think we should spendtime thinking about the implications positive and negative of recent progress in artificial intelligence, machine learning, and machine vision For example, militaries have begun to develop drones, ships, subs, tanks, munitions, and robotic troops with increasing levels of intelligence and autonomy.While this use of A.I holds great promise for reducing civilian casualties and keepingtroops out of harm s way, it also presents the possibility of unintended consequences if we re not careful Earlier this year, U.N Secretary General Ant nio Guterres called global attention to these threats The weaponization of artificial intelligence is a growing concern The prospect of weapons that can select and attack a target on their own raises multiple alarms The prospect of machines with the discretion and power to take human life is morally repugnant Unfortunately, my first attempt to educate myself on autonomous weapons was a bust I read a book that was dry and felt really outdated Then a few months ago I picked up Army of None Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War, by Paul Scharre It s the book I had been waiting for I can t recommend it highly enough.Scharre is a great thinker who has both on the ground experience and a high level view He s a former Army Ranger who served four tours of combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan He then went onto a policy role at the U.S Department of Defense and led the working group that drafted the government s policy on autonomous weapons He s currently a policy expert at the Center for a New American Security, a center left think tank in DC.He is also a good writer Scharre writes clearly about a huge range of topics computer science, military strategy, history, philosophy, psychology, and ethics He gives you the right grounding to start participating in the debate over where our country should draw the line on these powerful technologies.Scharre makes clear from the beginning that he has no problem with some well bounded military uses of autonomy For example, he brings you along for a tour of the U.S Navy s Aegis Combat System, an advanced system for tracking and guiding missiles at sea Aegis has a mode of operation in which human operators delegate all firing decisions to an advanced computer but can override them if necessary Why would you want to put a computer in charge If you re out at sea and an enemy fires 50 missiles at you all at once, you d be very happy to have a system that can react much faster than a human could Army of None also shows that autonomy has great benefits in environments where humans can t survive such as flight situations with high G forces or in which communications have broken down It can be enormously helpful to have an unmanned drone, tank, or sub that carries out a clear, limited mission with little communication back and forth with human controllers.In addition, autonomous weapons could potentially help save civilian lives Scharre cites robotics experts who argue that autonomous weapons could be programmed to never break the laws of war They wouldn t seek revenge They wouldn t get angry or scared They would take emotion out of the equation They could kill when necessary and then turn killing off in an instant Despite these and other advantages, Scharre does not want the military ever to turn over judgment to computers To make his case, he offers compelling real life cases in which human judgment was essential for preventing needless killing, such as his own experiences in Afghanistan A young girl of maybe five or six headed out of the village and up our way, two goats in trail Ostensibly she was just herding goats, but she was actually spotting for Taliban fighters Scharre s unit did not shoot Yes, it would have been legal, but he argues that it would not have been morally right A robotic sniper following strict algorithms might well have opened fire the second it detected a radio in her hand.Scharre ends the book by exploring the possibility of an international ban on fully autonomous weapons He concludes that this kind of absolute ban is not likely to succeed However, he holds out hope that enlightened self interest could bring countries together to ban specific uses of autonomous weapons, such as those that target individual people He also believes it s feasible to establish non binding rules of the road that could reduce the potential for autonomous systems to set each other off accidentally He also believes we could update the international laws of war to embed a common principle for human involvement in lethal force.There are no easy answers here But I agree with Scharre that we have to guard against becoming seduced by the allure of machines their speed, their seeming perfection, their cold precision And we should not leave it up to military planners or the people writing software to determine where to draw the proper lines We need many experts and citizens across the globe to get involved in this important debate I could not finish this book despite my interest in technology As an engineer who is fascinated by artificial intelligence and machine learning, I was very eager to read this book and learnfrom what experts are thinking and doing with AI Though I did learn a few cool things, there was lots of repetition I believe the author meant to write an informative and interesting book but as a reader it was not enough to keep me engaged. It can t be bargained with It can t be reasoned with It doesn t feel pity, or remorse, or fear And it absolutely will not stop, ever, until you are dead TerminatorDoes it concern you that in the near future we ll all be dependent upon driverless cars to get around Trust me, that s nothing This book, Army of None, was a real eye opener for me We re living in a world where warfare will soon be waged at the push of a button Autonomous weapons systems, designed and programmed byIt can t be bargained with It can t be reasoned with It doesn t feel pity, or remorse, or fear And it absolutely will not stop, ever, until you are dead TerminatorDoes it concern you that in the near future we ll all be dependent upon driverless cars to get around Trust me, that s nothing This book, Army of None, was a real eye opener for me We re living in a world where warfare will soon be waged at the push of a button Autonomous weapons systems, designed and programmed by imperfect humans, will be able to independently take military actions i.e., detecting and identifying enemy combatants, developing target solutions, estimating collateral damage, and deciding whether or not to engage their weapons This book introduces us to what is not only the future, but what has already been designed, at least in prototype state.Imagine a swarm of drones, a mechanized hunting wolf pack if you will, powerful and stealthy, making decisions without having to check in with a human boss , able to communicate as a team and make decisions collectively, not dependent on a pack leader which could be taken out by the enemy, sufficiently armed to terminate both military and human targets, to take down airplanes, to swarm battlefields and destroy transportation systems, or to sit dormant for years off the ocean floor and wait for ships and submarines to pass by Worst of all, imagine these AI directed autonomous systems being created with no built in off switch Sound like a science fiction novel Think again 16 nations have already built or acquired mainly from China weaponized drones A dozenare working on it Many of these are definitely not countries you d think of as friendly allies Armed robots are also proliferating South Korea Samsung has deployed a robot sentry along its border with North Korea Israel has sent an armed robotic vehicle on patrol near along the Gaza strip Russia is building a robotic tank Even countries such as Singapore and Ecuador now have armed robotic boats to protect their coastline.DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency , the agency who gave us the internet, GPS technology, stealth capability, and advancements in AI, has delivered to the Navy a prototype Sea Hunter, an unmanned ship which looks like a Klingon Bird of Prey, tasked with hunting enemy subs and ships Also, Northrup Grumman has delivered an experimental, autonomously operated, unmanned Salty Dog fighter aircraft, intended to be launched from aircraft carriers and capable of mid air refueling And the most frightening autonomous weapon system of all may not even be hardware, but rather software Of course, we ve all heard of viruses and worms infiltrating our computers and multiplying like a cancer Autonomous cyberbots take this dark world of destruction one step further They are designed to think and operate independently, searching every computer system personal computers, cellphones, businesses, governments which is connected directly or indirectly to the internet, looking for security vulnerabilities In today s world, that could also be simple household smart products which are designed with little attention to cyber security , such as Nest climate controllers,Echos, cars with GPS systems, house alarms, etc These cyberbots then autonomously determine whether the vulnerable programs are friendly allies or unfriendly foes If friendly, the bots can be designed to repair the vulnerability on the spot defensive and or hide themselves within the enemy program and wait for the most ideal time to wreak havoc offensive And they are designed to cover their tracks so that, while infected, everything continues to appear normal to the program user Even though important computer networks are often designed to be protected with an air gap no direct connection to the internet , cyberbots can find other ways to infiltrate, such as spreading via USB drives and sticks While cyberwarfare is a major concern imagine what would happen if the Air Traffic Controller systems were suddenly corrupted , the nightmare scenario is when cyberbots somehow infiltrate, corrupt and or turn the neural programming of our sophisticated weaponry, changing let s say a friendly fighter robot into an unfriendly one Can you sayTerminatorWhile this book was definitely an education for me, well over half of the book was not about autonomous systems, per se, but about the moral implications of their use This could have been covered in one or two chapters, not twenty Short version a toxic book coming from a fear monger with a governmental expansion agenda.Long version I am very interested in the subject And, as with bioethics, the perspective is very dark Most, if not all, asking for moderation , control or anything in between are simply primitivists scared out of their wits of what technology might bring.In this particular case, Scharre is a Luddite His understanding of the subject is shallow at best, although the surface covered is large indeed Fro Short version a toxic book coming from a fear monger with a governmental expansion agenda.Long version I am very interested in the subject And, as with bioethics, the perspective is very dark Most, if not all, asking for moderation , control or anything in between are simply primitivists scared out of their wits of what technology might bring.In this particular case, Scharre is a Luddite His understanding of the subject is shallow at best, although the surface covered is large indeed From the first pages he starts with an anecdote about the wonderful angel of the Soviet rocket command that saved the World from Nuclear Holocaust He continues with another anecdote in which he puts himself as a participant in such a saving action Well How about Mai Lai Massacre And that is the one that got to the public How about the other massacres that did not have a whistle blower How about the ones in which the whistle blower lost Why would anyone believe the first story coming from a country that specialized in low blows and deception The point is simply humans are way way below the angelic nature Scharre s superstitious mind can grasp.My second point might appear as making instead angels from the machines No The machine, at least for now, will do what the human will ask it to do So NO machine can be ANY better than the human programming it The decisions can be farclear Or the programming can simply be buggy.I got to this book though Bill Gates recommended books And I get it To grossly paraphrase Peter Thiel, betting on Microsoft simply means betting against progress And that seems to be Gates mindset.I have nothing against argument Even an emotional argument like Scharre s, devoid of reason What I point out, is also pointed out by Scharre many groups are pushing for this sort of weapons ANY restriction would push what Jello Biafra wonderfully put If Evolution is outlawed, only outlaws will evolve Paul Scharre is true to his own agenda He is a fear monger, a bureaucrat who wants a total control of the state, damn the rest And that is what makes this book toxic Because his gang might win based on this sort of emotional cries This didn t really get interesting for me until the chapter on Russian bots which started off the section that I d call what s the state of the art In covering several weapon systems from around the world, the salient point for each was whether or not it was automated or truly autonomous and how that status is defined The chapter on general IA concepts was the highlight of the book for me It covered Google s AI program DeepMind as it learned the Chinese Japanese Korean game of GO A task fa This didn t really get interesting for me until the chapter on Russian bots which started off the section that I d call what s the state of the art In covering several weapon systems from around the world, the salient point for each was whether or not it was automated or truly autonomous and how that status is defined The chapter on general IA concepts was the highlight of the book for me It covered Google s AI program DeepMind as it learned the Chinese Japanese Korean game of GO A task farchallenging to an AI than learning chess, by several orders of magnitude The following program AlphaGo was pitted against World Champion Lee Sedol and it came up with a move so unusual and startling that Lee got up and left the room for half an hour He came back and eventually lost As an indicator of how fast this is all moving, DeepMind AlphaGo played ten matches, AlphaGo won all ten The book drives home the point that we have to figure out what we re going to do with this tech right now The general public isn t aware how soon this will show up on the battlefield and in the air It took me a while to start reading the book and I ve struggled through the first 10% Not because it is bad, but because my point of view was that automated warfare is the way things will go.The book showed a much broader perspective and how automation complicates war and politics.But if it was the only thing that cought my attention in this book I wouldn t rate it so high It is also a very realistic view of what questions we will need to ask ourselves before, or during the development of AI s It took me a while to start reading the book and I ve struggled through the first 10% Not because it is bad, but because my point of view was that automated warfare is the way things will go.The book showed a much broader perspective and how automation complicates war and politics.But if it was the only thing that cought my attention in this book I wouldn t rate it so high It is also a very realistic view of what questions we will need to ask ourselves before, or during the development of AI systems Why Because warfare will be the main and most lethal testing ground for human AI interaction In both roles supporting and making decisions.As for AI, this book presents arealistic vision and asks relevant questions than Superintelligence I highly recommend it We ve gotten used to a certain model of popularized knowledge a clear thesis, summarized on the back of the book, and a chapter by chapter marshalling of evidence in support Army of None is from a different school, and frustrating if you ask that of it Rather than a single argument, it is structured as a thematic literature survey, exploring topics as diverse as the targeting systems of Aegis Combat system equipped submarines, cyber warfare, and philosophy of the rules of armed engagement Th We ve gotten used to a certain model of popularized knowledge a clear thesis, summarized on the back of the book, and a chapter by chapter marshalling of evidence in support Army of None is from a different school, and frustrating if you ask that of it Rather than a single argument, it is structured as a thematic literature survey, exploring topics as diverse as the targeting systems of Aegis Combat system equipped submarines, cyber warfare, and philosophy of the rules of armed engagement This isn t a book well suited for the casually curious to the reader s cost, the driest material comes first, reviewing what is known of the US and other countries current semi automated systems in what is probably excessive detail The further one gets into the book, however, theit broadens and starts treating the questions that probably matterto most potential readers What rules should or could be applied to an automated weapon system How can humans be kept in or on the loop of combat decision making What bans on weapons have held historically, and why Sharre s choice to build so much of his book around interviews with experts can come across as a lack of confidence in his own thesis, but may reflect his years of service in both policy and on the front with the US military, crafting cautious and well founded argument When his perspective on the best path forward reveals itself late in the books, it is something of a last concept standing Through process of elimination of possibilities we ve explored in detail with him and found in one way or another wanting, some possibilities stand out as worth exploring, while other common perspectives in the media no longer hold up.Firmly recommended to people looking for an expert guide thinking through the issues around the arrival of automated force but don t make the mistake of picking this up to fill your popularized science reading slot It will askfrom you than that I enjoyed this book considerably I went back and forth on the rating, but since I statistically don t give enough five star ratings, I ll bump it up This book isn t perfect but it has a lot to say about automation in a readable style.Beyond that, I don t have many comments It s an excellent description of issues regarding automation in warfare, a decent exploration of some general AI risks, and a start at considering policy Looking at criticism of the book, I think it s anuanced and ba I enjoyed this book considerably I went back and forth on the rating, but since I statistically don t give enough five star ratings, I ll bump it up This book isn t perfect but it has a lot to say about automation in a readable style.Beyond that, I don t have many comments It s an excellent description of issues regarding automation in warfare, a decent exploration of some general AI risks, and a start at considering policy Looking at criticism of the book, I think it s anuanced and balanced take than many Autonomous weapons i.e killer robots are one of the many incredible and terrifying technologies coming to our world whether we re ready for them or not Army of None is a thorough survey of the development of autonomy in weapons technology, its potential application in the future, and the advantages and disadvantages of autonomous and semi autonomous systems It explains technical details well for one with no particular knowledge of the subject The book focuses particularly on the moral and Autonomous weapons i.e killer robots are one of the many incredible and terrifying technologies coming to our world whether we re ready for them or not Army of None is a thorough survey of the development of autonomy in weapons technology, its potential application in the future, and the advantages and disadvantages of autonomous and semi autonomous systems It explains technical details well for one with no particular knowledge of the subject The book focuses particularly on the moral and ethical issues created by fully autonomous weapons It presents both sides of the argument fairly well, though it is somewhat skewed against autonomy Oddly, it does not spend much time on the simple point that autonomous weapons could keepof one s own human soldiers out of harm s way, which I would have thought to be one of the primary advantages.The book s primary flaw is a redundant style I think a good editor could have reduced the length of the book by at least a third without removing anything substantive I d still recommend the book to those interested in the subject matter Good book that explores the future of autonomous weapons These weapons range from loitering munitions to drones to nuclear command and control systems think war games Further, the book explores not only advancements in technology, but the ethics and morality of developing these types of systems. 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  • Paperback
  • 448 pages
  • Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War
  • Paul Scharre
  • 15 May 2019
  • 0393356582